Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts.Answer the questions after each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(40 points)
In the quest for the perfect lawn,homeowners across thecountry are taking a shortcut—and it is the environment that is paying the price.About eight mnillion square metres of plastic grassis sold each year but opposition has now spread to the highest gardening circles.The Chelsea Flower Show has banned fake grassfrom this year's event,declaring itto be not part of its ethos.The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS),which runs the annual show inwest London,says it has introduced the ban because of the damageplastic grass does to the environment and biodiversity.
Ed Horne,of the RHS,said:"We launched our sustainability strategy last year and fake grass is just not in line with our ethos andviews on plastic. We recommend using real grass because of itsenvironmental benefits,which include supporting wildlife alleviating flooding and cooling the environment?
The RHS's decision comes as campaigners tryto raiseawareness of the problems fake grass causes.A Twitter account,which claims to “cut through the greenwash of artificial grassalready has more than 20,000 followers.It is trying to encouragepeople to sign two petitions,one calling for a ban on the sale ofplastic grass and another calling for an “ecologicaI damage'tax onsuch lawns. They have gathered 7,276 and 11,282 signatures.
However,supporters of fake grass point out that there is also anenvironmental impact with natural lawns,which need mowing andtherefore usually consume electricity or petrol.The industry alscpoints out that real grass requires considerable amounts of waterweed killer or other treatments and that people who lay fake grasstend to use their garden more. The industry also claims that peoplewho lay fake grass spend an average of f500 on trees or shrubs fortheir garden,which provides habitat for insects.
In response to another petition last year about banning fakelawns,which gathered 30,000 signatures,the govemnment respondedthat it has “no plans to ban the use of artificial grass"
It added:"We prefer to help people and organisaions make theright choice rather than legislating on such matters. However, the use of artificial grass must comply with the legal and policy safeguards in place to protect biodiversity and ensure sustainable drainage.while measures such as the strengthened biodiversity duty should serve to accourage public authorities to strengthen sustainable alternatives. "
21. the RHS thinks that plastic grass_____.
A.is harmful to the environment.
B.is a hot topic in gardening circles.
C.is overpraised in the
D.is ruining the view of WEST London.
22.the petitions mentioned in para 3 reveal the campaigner's _______.
A.disapoint with the RHS
B.resistance too fake grass use
C.anger over the proposed tax
D.concern about real grass supply
23. In para 4,supporters of fake grass point out _______.
A.the necessity to lower the costs of fake grass.
B.the disadvantages of groeing real grass.
C.the way to take care of artifical lawns
D.the challenges of insect habitat protection.
24.What would the goverment do with regard to artificial grass?
A.urge legislationto restrict its use.
B.take measures to guarantee its quality
C.remind its users to obey existing rules.
D.replaceit with suatainable alternatives
25. It can be learned from the text that fake grass _______.
A.is being improved continuously
B.has been a market share decline
C.is becoming affordable
D.has been a controversial product
It's easy to dismiss as absurd the Trump administration's ideas for plugging the chronic funding gap of our national parks. Can anyone really think it's a good idea to allow Amazon deliveries to your tent in Yosemite or food trucks to line up under the redwood trees atSequoia National Park?
But the administration is right about one thing: U.S. nationalparks are in crisis.Collectively,they have a maintenance backlog ofmore than $12 billion.Roads,trails,restrooms,visitor centers andother infrastructure are crumbling.
But privatizing and commercializing the campgrounds would not be the panacea that the Interior Department's Outdoor AdvisoryCommittee would have us believe.Campgrounds are a tiny portionof the overall infrastructure backlog,and concessionaires in theparks hand over, on average, only about 5% of their revenues to theNational Park Service.
Moreover,increased privatization would certainly undercut oneof the major reasons why 300 million visitors come to the parks eachyear:to enjoy nature and get a respite from the commercial drumbeatthat overwhelms daily life.
The real problem is that the parks have been chronically starvedof funding. We conducted a comprehensive survey examining howusresidents view their national parks. andwefound that Amnericans place a very high value on them whether or not theyactually visit them.The peer-reviewed economic survey of 700 U.S taxpayers, conducted by mail and internet,also found that peoplewould be willing to pay a significant amount of monney to make surethe parks and their programs are kept intact. Some 81% of respondents said they would be willing to pay additional taxes forthe next 10 years to avoid any cuts to the national parks.
The national parks provide great value to U.S. residents both asplaces to escape and as symbols of nature.On top of this,theyproduce value from their extensive educational programs, theirpositive impact on the climate through carbon sequestration,theircontribution to our cultural and artistic life.and of course through tourism.The parks also help keep America's past alive, workingwith thousands of local jurisdictions around the country to protect historical sites ——including Ellis Island and Gettysburg and to bringthe stories of these places to life.
The parks do all this on a shoestring. Congress allocates onIy $3 billion a year to the national park system ——an amount that hasbeen flat since 2001 (in inflationadjusted dollars) with the exceptionof a onetime boost in 2009 as part of the Obama stimulus packageMeanwhile.the number of annual visitors has increased by morethan 50% since 1980,and now stands at 330 million visitors per year.
26.What problem are U.S. national parks faced with?
A.decline of business profits
C.lack of transportation services
D.poorly maintained infractructure
27.Increased privatization of the campground may?
A.spoil vistor experience
B.help preserve nature
C.bring operational pressure
D. boost visits to parks
28. according to para 5,most respondents in the survey would?
A.go to the national parks on a regular basis.
B.adavocate a bigger budget for the national parks
C.agree to pay extra for the national parks
D.support the national parks'recent reforms
29.The national parks are valuable in that they _____.
A. lead the way in tourism
B.have historical significance
C.sponsor research on climate
D.provide an income for the locals
30. It can be concluded from the text that the national park system ____.
A.is able to cope with staff shortages
B.is able to meet visitor' demands
C.is in need of a new pricing policy
D.is in need of a funding increase